It slowed dramatically (but did not stop) about 8000 years ago.Much of the melt water came from the Northern Hemisphere’s great Laurentide, Scandinavian, and Siberian ice sheets, which disappeared.If that page also shows a proxy address, we need that one too.
ROME (Roma), the capital of the modern kingdom of Italy, in the province of Rome, on the river Tiber, 17 miles N. In the following account the general subject of Rome is treated broadly under two aspects, themselves subdivided. The red sort was called lapis pyrrhopoecilus and the grey lapis psaronius. During the first few centuries of the existence of the city, both the methods of construction and the designs employed appear to have been purely Etruscan.
These are:—(1) the topography and growth of the city of Rome, the evolution of which is traced from the earliest times to the present, and (2) Roman history, i.e. The columns in the Basilica Ulpia are a fine example of the latter; both sorts are used for the columns of the Pantheon and those of the temple of Saturn in the Forum. The earliest temples were either simple cellae without columns, or else, in the case of the grander temples, such as that of Capitoline Jupiter, the columns were very widely spaced (araeostyle), and consequently had entablatures of wooden beams.
the political and social history of the Roman republic, empire and medieval commune. It appears to have been mostly used for pavements and panels of wall linings. Gigantic ships were specially made to carry the obelisks and other great monoliths (Plin. The architectural decorations were more generally in gilt bronze or painted terra-cotta than in stone, and the paintings or statues which decorated the buildings were usually the work of Etruscan artists.
The nine or ten hills and ridges on which the city stands are formed of masses of tufa or conglomerated sand and ashes thrown out by neighbouring volcanoes now extinct, but active down to a very recent period. The granites used in Rome came mostly from near Philae on the Nile (Plin. The Greek influence is more obvious; it is found in the period following the Second Punic or Hannibalic War, and almost all the temples of the earlier imperial age are Greek, with certain modifications, not only in general design but in details and ornaments.
Rome's founder Romulus is credited with instituting the first two flamens, of Jupiter and of Mars.
Most is known about the wife of the flamen Dialis (priest of Jupiter), who helped her husband in certain rites, wore a special costume, and was subject to several taboos.
However, the most venerable priestess positions in Rome, the Vestal Virgins (Vestales) and Flaminicae, wives of the flamens, were exclusive to women of elite families.
By tradition instituted by King Numa Pompilius (c.717-623 BCE), the sacerdotium of six Vestals each gave thirty years of chaste service to the goddess Vesta, maintaining her sacred fire, cleansing her temple, grinding the sacred flour (mola salsa) for sacrifice to the gods, and guarding the Palladium (see the wooden icon of Pallas Athena on Vesta's shoulder), said to have been carried by Aeneas from Troy and deposited in the Temple of Vesta.
a encore été occupée, mais beaucoup de zones n’ont jamais été réhabitées et l’activité de construction a décru.
L’objectif de cet article est d’analyser les restes de deux petits temples de la zone nord du , qui ont été découverts dans les années 80.
One group of these volcanoes is that around Lago Bracciano, while another, still nearer to Rome, composes the Alban Hills. Greek architects were largely employed, such as Apollodorus of Damascus, who designed Trajan's forum and other buildings; on the other hand, a Roman, Cossutius, was employed on the building of the Olympieum at Athens, in the 2nd century The Romans, however, though far below the Greeks in artistic originality, were very able engineers, and this led to the development of a new and more purely Roman style, in which the restrictions imposed by the use of the stone lintel were put aside and large spaces were covered with vaults and domes cast in semi-fluid concrete, a method which had the enormous advantage of giving the arched form without the constant thrust at the springing which makes true arches or vaults of wide span so difficult to deal with.